Best and Worst Electrolyte Drinks

Best and Worst Electrolyte Drinks

Electrolytes are charged metallic “ions” that help balance fluid pressure inside our cells and control the pH of our blood. Normal nerve, heart and muscle function relies on adequate amounts of these minerals, and deficiencies can hamper performance dramatically. Water is consumed per kilogram of body weight more than any other item in the diet, making it a major source of minerals. However water does not supply enough of these minerals anymore.

In the past, our water would come down from the mountains, collect minerals from the rocks, become activated through movement and was free of pollutants. Today, our water needs to be purified, distilled and treated which can diminish or completely eliminate the mineral content. To top it off, much of the water has become fluoridated, which binds to magnesium and sets you up for fatigue, muscle cramps and spasms. In fact, the root cause of muscle cramps is usually from a lack of electrolytes, especially magnesium and potassium.

During our early days of agriculture, fermented drinks fit the bill more than water to maintain energy and hydration all day. These provided ionic minerals to the body, supplying the muscles with the much needed electricity to function. Today, research has allowed us to design drinks to address the precise needs of the body during physiological, emotional and psychological stress to allow us to push beyond what is considered humanly possible. If you are really serious about performance, consider also reading the article Adaptogens: The Secret Weapon for Athletes and if you are male, How to Increase Testosterone Naturally.


1.  Hammer HEED Sports Energy Drink


hammer heedHEED is designed for those that will be experiencing moderate sweat loss and requiring a liquid carbohydrate source. It uses a different type of carbohydrate delivery system instead of simple sugars that may not cause the gastric distress that many sugary sports drinks do. The osmolality for Heed is 280-290, and the osmolality of blood is 280-290. A sports drink should be in this range or slightly less. The carbohydrate content for Heed is 25 grams, putting it at the exact range required by extreme exercise. It has the full electrolyte profile needed for mineral loss (including sufficient magnesium) and vitamin B6, an important precursor of neurotransmitters and assists in the absorption of magnesium. The testimonials of many people using it shows that Heed is currently at the top of the class.

*If you are needing something over the 3 hour mark and beyond, you will need an easy to digest protein source and a more heavy duty profile. Under general circumstances, I wouldn’t recommend using soy. However, Hammer’s research and numerous testimonials shows it works better during exercise than whey, while whey is better post-workout. Soy produces less ammonia than whey, leading to less muscle fatigue during exercise. Very few use non-GMO soy and that’s also where Hammer stands out. The best one is Hammer Nutrition Perpetuem.

2. Saltstick Electrolyte Capsules or Hammer Endurolytes Fizz

Saltstick was created by a triathlete and organic chemist, for triathletes. It carries the claim of being used by every Ironman World Champion since 2006 and winners of triathlons and events around the world. It uses bioavailable forms of the minerals, making sure they make it to your muscles. While not technically a drink, I decided to include this if you may have a system down and prefer to have your electrolytes as separate pills from your water and carbohydrate sources for precision of mineral loss.

A 2015 doubled blind placebo study from Spain found that triathletes who used 12 salt capsules divided into three doses during a Half Ironman on top of their sports drinks completed the race 26 minutes faster than the placebo group who also used sports drinks, but placebo capsules. The researchers later explain that more salt is needed than supplied in sports drinks, however the taste would ruin the drink. This gives evidence that adding these capsules in addition to your sports drink would be the ideal combination for heavy sweat loss and competitions over 2 hours.

Heavy sweat loss equals a higher need for sodium and other minerals. So if you are a triathlete or Ironman competitor and have experienced more than normal sweat loss, you want something a little more heavy duty. Hammer Endurolytes Fizz is a superior option for those that want to add something to their water and have a separate carbohydrate source in mind.

3. Endure Performance Electrolyte Drops or LyteShow


Both Endure and Lyteshow use concentrated ionic minerals from the Great Salt Lake. They come in convenient liquid drops that you can add to any bottle of water, making them extremely convenient. Endure has slightly more magnesium, while Lyteshow includes zinc.

According to Lyteshow’s website, it has been clinically tested using firefighters, showing enhanced hydration with less water than regular water. The researchers found that “this can minimize carrying excessive weight, possibly reducing fatigue during extended exercise.” Both of these provide a great middle ground for those wanting to get enough sodium while having a better balance of magnesium, chloride and potassium without sugar or carbohydrates.
Endure                                    Lyteshow 







If you want to add a flavor, try the homemade PaleoEdge electrolyte drink:
32 oz. water
1 orange, lemon and 1/2 cucumber sliced
1/4 tsp. Endure or Lyteshow

4. Gerolsteiner Sparkling Mineral Water

Gerolsteiner label

I did some traveling this summer (2015) and tested out numerous mineral waters and took pictures of each of the labels. While some mineral waters were very low in minerals, there were a few that were impressively high in all the electrolytes, including bicarbonate which is often missing and important for pH balancing. What stood out to me about Gerolsteiner from Germany is that it collects minerals from the dolomites, making it very high in calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate. And it tasts amazing, especially if you crave carbonated drinks.

That combination is perfect for those with headaches, nausea, fatigue and digestive issues. So if your doctor has recommended that you drink an electrolyte drink that isn’t necessarily to be used for exercise and sweating and needs to be low in sodium, this is the best choice straight from nature. However check with your doctor if bicarbonate is contraindicated with any of your medications. If you are an athlete, keep it in the fridge and enjoy it later in the evening to supply more calcium and magnesium to speed recovery and alleviate sore muscles. If you want more energy and hydration while sitting at your desk, this is the best option. In the US, you can find it in liter bottles in stores like Trader Joes or Whole Foods for $1.68 to $2.00, but if you can’t then online is the way to go.

5. Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator or Ultima Replenisher

The Vega Sport Electrolyte Hydrator contains just electrolytes with stevia as a sweetener. It comes in convenient small mini-pencil sized packets. Athletes sometimes get cramps from sugary drinks when you are not sweating profusely, making this an ideal solution for those wanting something sweeter. The taste of stevia however is too strong for some people and it may fall short for those requiring a steady supply of glucose, like for runners and cyclists.

Ultima Replenisher uses a wide range of electrolytes, vitamin C, non-GMO maltodextrin, silica and is sweetened with stevia and luo han guo. The taste is stronger than Vega and the opinions are mixed, but if you like the taste of stevia and luo han guo together then you will like this one. Popular choice for diabetics or those watching their sugar, sodium and carbohydrate count.

What about Coconut Water?

A study from 2012 and a study from 2015 found that coconut water has anti-glycation properties, kidney protection, prevented hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Another study from 2012 took 12 young guys and had them run on a treadmill for 60 minutes, and they were either given bottled water, VitaCoco coconut water, coconut water from concentrate, or a carbohydrate electrolyte sports drink that they didn’t name. They tested on four different occasions spaced by five days, and measured hydration status, performance and subjective measures like thirst, fatigue and stomach discomfort. No differences were reported for fluid retention or performance, but the coconut water and concentrated coconut water group had more bloating and stomach upset.

The best way to enjoy coconut water is to buy a young coconut, take a hammer to the top, and enjoy it fresh and raw. If you want to buy coconut water in the store, you need to be more selective since many companies are going out of their way to deliver cheap coconut water that lasts for two years on a shelf, often from concentrate and with added sugar and flavors. That should make you suspicious and I would like to see raw coconut water tested in additional studies.

What you want to look for is coconut water in the refrigerated section, that uses young coconuts, is not pasteurized and does not contain any added ingredients like natural flavors, fruit juice or sugar. The companies I have found that follow these guidelines include: Harmless Harvest, Unoco, Liquitera, Vital Juice and Juice Press. Many of these use a process called HPP, which sterilizes the juice with pressure instead of heat. This keeps the vitamins and enzymes in tact.

Water Bottles

I have been getting questions about what water bottles I recommend. I use a 40 oz. stainless steel water bottle that doesn’t have an aluminum lining like most stainless bottles do. It’s called a hydro flask and will keep drinks cold or hot. Very satisfying to have a cold drink after a few hours on a trail. I take out the bladder of a 50 oz. Camelbak because I don’t want to worry about using an electrolyte drink in it and cleaning afterwards, and the hydroflask fits there perfectly. Great for hikes or trail runs.


When looking at a label for bottled drinks, look for reverse osmosis water. If it doesn’t use it, it is most likely flouridated, and flouride binds to magnesium. If a drink doesn’t have magnesium to begin with and uses fluoridated water, I see an increased risk of muscle cramps. Look into it Lebron James. On a serious note, magnesium deficiency may cause sudden cardiac death in athletes, especially those in heat or doing long endurance events.

1. Gatorade

Gatorade is owned by PepsiCo, the makers of Pepsi and who dominate the sports drink market at 69 percent. Many of the colors and flavors seem a little extreme with their bright blues and reds. How are these made? The artificial colors and flavors are derived from aromatic hydrocarbons from petrochemicals. In other words, oil. Manufacturers are not required to divulge this information because artificial colors and flavors are considered intellectual property.

How about the numbered dyes? For starters, these food dyes have been found to inhibit mitochondrial respirationthe ability of the powerhouse of your cells to convert nutrients to energyRed 3 causes cancer in animals, with evidence that other dyes also are carcinogenic. Three dyes (Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6) have been found to be contaminated with benzidine or other carcinogens. At least four dyes (Blue 1, Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6) cause hypersensitivity reactions, and numerous studies found Yellow 5 positive for genotoxicity. Depending on the flavor, Gatorade uses Yellow 5, Yellow 6, Red 40 and Blue 1.

For years, Gatorade used hydrogenated soybean and cottonseed oils, hydrogenated coconut oil (fruit punch flavor), and brominated vegetable oil (orange, strawberry), a flame retardant that is banned in Japan and the European Union. Bromine is a toxin and a goitrogen (harmful to the thyroid). Hydrogenated oils are now banned in many restaurants across the US due to their negative health impacts. They are strongly linked to heart disease and are known to destroy the porosity and flexibility of healthy cell membranes. Gatorade has now removed brominated vegetable oil and replaced it with sucrose acetate isobutyrate.

Gatorade went from GMO high fructose corn syrup, to GMO glucose-fructose corn syrup (changed the ratios to avoid the dreaded HFCS title) to the most recent combination of 21 grams of sugar and dextrose per 12 oz serving. Along with the depleting of minerals caused by sugar, it has also been found to increase the strains of bad bacteria like c difficile (C-Diff) and chlostridium perfringens (one of the main strains of bacteria responsible for food poisoning). Gatorade also only contains potassium and sodium, neglecting calcium, magnesium and chloride which seems like a major oversight for electrolyte loss.

2. Powerade 

Powerade is owned by Coca-Cola and dominates 30 percent of the market. The online ingredients of the Powerade Berry & Tropical are water, glucose, fructose, citric acid, mineral salts (sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, potassium phosphate), flavourings, acidity regulator (potassium citrate), stabilisers (acacia gum, glycerol esters of wood rosins), sweeteners (sucralose, acesulfame K), colour (brilliant blue). (You have to go to 3rd party websites to find the US ingredients).

You have to break down the label a little more to see what exactly is water, glucose, fructose, “flavorings,” sucralose acesulfame K and “color,” which I can promise you is not brilliant. The other interesting part in my search is that Powerade is fairly clever in deceiving the customer by getting around the high fructose corn syrup label online. It is also interesting that the European spelling of flavour and colour is used.  Why would they do this? Because in certain countries, they label high fructose corn syrup as water, glucose and fructose! It is the SAME THING. High fructose corn syrup is water, glucose and fructose. The U.S. label has to tell the ugly truth. Nice try Powerade. Spiking your blood sugar affects hormones and nitric oxide levels, both important for performance. On top of that, if you consume food color dyes, you are blocking your body’s ability to generate energy (study cited under Gatorade).

Here is the U.S. label. Water, High Fructose Corn Syrup, Less than 0.5% of: Citric Acid, Salt and Potassium Citrate and Magnesium Chloride and Calcium Chloride and Potassium Phosphate (electrolyte sources),Natural FlavorsModified Food StarchCalcium Disodium EDTA(to protect color), Medium Chain Triglycerides (contains coconut oil), Brominated Vegetable Oil,Vitamin B3 (niacinamide), Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride),Vitamin B12, Red #40

Despite pressure on Gatorade to remove Brominated Vegetable Oil, Powerade has at this time chosen to keep the flame retardant in their drink, not to mention a red dye.

Powerade has 20 packed grams of high fructose corn syrup leading the way to type 2 diabetes.

3. Powerade Zero

Also made by Coca Cola, you see the artificial sweeteners sucralose and acesulfame K and artificial colors. Sucralose – also known as Splenda – is an organochlorine. Sucralose has been found to wreak havoc on intestinal bacteria (up to 50% destruction). Your beneficial bacteria is responsible for up to 80 percent of your immune system, manufacturing b-vitamins and vitamin K, your ability to lose weight, and emerging research is connecting anxiety and depression to low beneficial bacteria populations. Sucralose is also used in a lot of whey protein powders.

Ingredients: Water, citric acid, mineral salts (sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, potassium phosphate), colour (anthocyanins), natural raspberry flavouring with other natural flavourings, acidity regulator (E332), sweeteners (sucralose, acesulfame K), color (E133).

4. PediaLyte

PediaLyte is a drink marketed to kids, for hydrating during times of diarrhea and vomiting, and is also used by athletes. As you can see from the label, there isn’t anything that makes PediaLyte stand out. It uses the same common cheap formula of dextrose, salt, artificial flavors, artificial sweeteners and food color dyes. They even have a bubble gum flavor. It also missing magnesium and calcium. But their marketing is what makes PediaLyte the first thing people think of when they are sick.

The main headline at the top of each PediaLytes drink is “Pedialyte helps prevent dehydration and quickly replaces fluids, zinc, and electrolytes lost during diarrhea and vomiting.” They have taken it a step further and added prebiotics which help probiotics colonize, yet they use sucralose. From the sucralose study mentioned above, the total numbers of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and other probiotics were significantly decreased. These strains of bacteria are what help keep you well and prevent diarrhea.

As mentioned under Gatorade, three dyes (Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6) have been found to be contaminated with benzidine or other carcinogens, and numerous studies of Yellow 5 have been positive for genotoxicity. And Pedialyte is being marketed to children? Or anyone when they are sick?

Ingredients: Dextrose, Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavor, Potassium Citrate, Salt, Sodium Citrate, Sucralose, Acesulfame Potassium, Zinc Gluconate, and Red 40, Blue Dye 1 or Yellow Dye 6 depending on the flavor. The AdvancedCare product also uses acesulfame K.

5. Vitaminwater

Vitaminwater is also owned by Coca-Cola. You may have noticed that the bottle contains “2.5 servings” which means you need to multiply everything by 2.5, a deceiving way to lower the amounts on the label from first glance. There are 31 grams of sugar (use to be crystalline fructose, a form even higher in fructose than HFCS and often tainted with heavy metals. Changes now say “cane sugar”) in each bottle of Vitaminwater, compared to 39 grams of sugar in one can of Coke. You may have even read the about the lawsuit against Vitaminwater for calling itself a healthy beverage, and Coca-Cola has since acknowledged that it is indeed not. Too much sugar will make you cramp while you’re competing, upset your stomach, lower your immunity, deplete minerals and actually dehydrate you. As for the vitamins, they are synthetic, incomplete and worthless to the body.

6. Lucozade

This one was brought to my attention by a reader from England where this drink is popular. There may be a bigger backlash to aspartame in the US than England, where even Pepsi is removing it from their diet drinks. They are just replacing it with another artificial sweetener – sucralose – but one small victory at a time. Where to start with aspartame. I’ll keep it simple and straight to the point. It has been found to contribute to the formation of tumors in the CNS such as gliomas, medulloblastomas and meningiomas, increased lymphoma and leukemia and is an excitotoxin to brain neurons. Artificial sweeteners in general increased waist circumference 500 percent while aspartame in particular increased blood sugar in diabetes prone mice. The safety profile of aspartame has most likely been suppressed for many years and is finally seeing its day in court.

Ingredients: water, glucose syrup, acid (citric acid), acidity regulator (sodium citrate), stabiliser (acacia gum), preservative (potassium sorbate), anti-oxidant (ascorbic acid), sweeteners (aspartame, aseculfame K), flavouring, vitamins (niacin, pantothenic acid, b6, b12), colour (beta-cerotene).Contains a source of phenylalanine.


7. Accelerade

This has a poor combination of sucrose, fructose and GMO soy protein (many of the documented health risks of GMO’s can be found in Genetic Roulette: The Documented Health Risks of Genetically Engineered Foods). For many sports and activities, drinking protein while exercising at maximum effort can cause gastric distress. For triathletes and the Ironman, the requirements and replenishing schedules are different. Look for non-GMO protein sources like Hammer Nutrition Perpetuem.

It bears repeating that refined sugar has been found to increase the strains of bad bacteria like c difficile (C-Diff) and chlostridium perfringens (one of the main strains of bacteria responsible for food poisoning). Altering bad gut flora isn’t the best strategy in a long race.

Ingredients: Sucrose, whey protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, citric acid, fructose, natural flavors, soy lecithin, magnesium carbonate, salt, red beet, xanthan gum, maltodextrin, potassium phosphate, vitamin E acetate, ascorbic acid.

8. Cytomax

From the makers of Muscle Milk – one of the most contaminated protein drinks – comes Cytomax. Its advanced carbohydrate system uses crystalline fructose, which has a higher fructose content than high fructose corn syrup and seems to be pushing the limits with heavy metals. Due to their Muscle Milk reputation with heavy metals, I’m not convinced of the purity of this product until further testing is done.

9. NUUN Active Hydration

I have seen these popping up near counters everywhere, and I almost purchased one as something quick I could take on a hike in my water since I was running short on time. Then I looked at the label. I have seen these popping up near counters everywhere, and I almost purchased one as something quick I could take on a hike in my water since I was running short on time. Then I looked at the label.

Other ingredients: citric acid, sorbitol, sodium carbonate, natural colors flavors, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, polyethylene glycol, magnesium sulfate, sodium benzoate, calcium carbonate, acesulfame potassium, riboflavin-5-phosphate.

I went in detail regarding acesulfame potassium (which is also in Powerade) in my article Best Electrolyte Drinks for Diabetes, so I will focus on the preservative sodium benzoate. The concern is that when you combine sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid you create benzene, especially in the presence of heat and light (common with storing citrus flavored soda in a warm garage). Citric acid may act as a catalyst for this process in the presence of ascorbic acid. NUUN Hydration contains vitamin C in the active ingredients, making this a prime candidate for this reaction.

Benzene damages the cells mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell where you are generating energy in the first place! It has been found to cause cancer – leukemia and other cancers of the blood – by disabling a cell’s DNA. This is especially true for those with a P-450 CYP1B1 gene mutation. Benzene is also found in cigarettes, pesticides, car exhaust, paints and certain laundry detergents. Runners and bikers exposed to car exhaust should be especially mindful of this, and try to avoid training in places with heavy traffic.

I hope this helps you choose your electrolyte drinks. Stay hydrated my friends.


All cited studies are linked in orange.

See also:

Best and Worst Whey Protein Powders
What to Take for Pain: Top 5 Reasons to Avoid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

198 Responses to Best and Worst Electrolyte Drinks

  1. Regarding Accelerade. I’m not sure what sort of training this blog addresses. Check the 2nd water bottle on 1/2 of the people in any triathlon group training ride. They have Accelerade or Hammer Perputuum in it. (The other bottle is plain water.)

    The theory is this. Protein takes 4 hours for the body to process. Having protein in the drink places it in the digestive system to be picked up for recovery. Most group rides last around 2-3 hours. So the timing works. It’s probably not good timing for a 1 hour trip to the gym.

  2. Hey Rick,

    This blog addresses a wide range of sports and activities. I should clarify that the entire electrolyte list is not limited to triathlons and will update it to be more clear. You are right regarding the protein requirements for triathletes, and Accelerade and Ensure are popular choices. However I would still not endorse them due to the use of GMO soy protein, which has many documented health risks. Hammer Perpetuem uses GMO free soy protein, and while it’s not my favorite protein, it would be the best option of the three.

  3. Hi all, You may have carried out a fantastic job. I’ll undoubtedly bing the item and for our component advocate to be able to my buddies. We’re self-assured they will be took advantage of this blog.

    • Ultima Replenisher is definitely a solid choice in terms of ingredients, I have just received complaints regarding the taste. It’s probably because they mix stevia and luo han guo which can be a little too sweet for some people. I will add it next to the Vega product which also uses stevia so people can try both. Thanks for the comment!

      • I was using Ultima Replenisher for years and loved it. At the same time, I was having dizziness and mild vertigo. I didn’t make the connection until I stopped using it for six months and then tried it again. Stevia causes dizziness in a lot of people. I wish I had known sooner.

      • I have been taking Ultima since purchasing it at a pre-race expo. I think it’s been helpful. I will also take it before and after my weight training workouts.

        The only negative I have with it is it’s mixability. It clumps and I must shake my mixing bottle quite vigorously in order for it to mix.

    • Hey Jeff,

      For an event of that duration, you will definitely want something more like Hammer Perpetuem, in addition to adequate water, gels, easy to digest snacks etc. Muscle repair will be an important part of your endurance. Remember that once Perpetuem is mixed, it is only good for 3-5 hours so you may want to mix it as needed. Keeping measured amounts in plastic bags is a good way to do this. Good luck! Very impressive.

  4. Cracking report Alex, not alot of these out there.
    Looking at the other end of the exercise spectrum, 1-2hrs training, and to save on buying endless plastic bottles, I really like your Homemade drink. Is there any other minerals you’d add since writing this and could you make up and freeze in say ice cube bags to use as and when over time?

    • Hey Simon,

      Happy to help. What you could do is put all the ingredients in a jug the night before and stick it in the fridge overnight. Then strain it in the morning and freeze it ice cube trays. You can do this with a variety of berries as well if you want to mix it up. If you don’t mind the gel like consistency of chia seeds, I would add those as well for extra minerals. They have a rich history for being used for endurance by regulating hydration.

  5. Are any of these suitable for children? My daughter is 11 and a very keen tennis player. Lots of kids seem to have the likes of powerade at tournaments but I’ve tried to keep my daughter away from those evils (the drinks, not the other kids!!) however now that she’s playing in tournaments that are sometimes lasting 4hrs+ she needs something more than just water and bananas!! I recently bought a power/energy bar thingie but on the back it states not suitable for children :/ She gets stomach cramps if she eats too much so I was wondering if some sort of drink/shake might be the answer?
    Thanks in advance!

    • Hi Clair,

      Great job on being aware of what to give your daughter! I would recommend the Hammer Nutrition Heed for kids, especially for tennis. I didn’t see anything on the label that would be unsuitable for children, and I called the company for you to double check and they said it was fine. Depending on her weight, it is 0.5/1 scoop per hour up to 90lbs, and 0.75/1 scoop per hour for 90-120lbs. If something like a bar or drink states it is unsuitable for children, it’s usually because it contains a stimulant like caffeine. Although they should have it for HFCS, artificial flavors and colors too right? If she is going for 4+ hours, she will most likely need a food source as well.

      • Thank you for your swift and informative response. I’ve read other good reviews on the Hammer Nutrition Heed so I think we’ll be giving it a go.
        Thanks again.

        • Just a quick update. We’ve bought a couple of sachets of Hammer HEED for my daughter to try and she’s getting on v well with it, it does just what it’s supposed to do without any added ‘evils’! Many thanks for your help and advice. Clair :)

  6. I’m 75 years old and I’m in fairly good shape for my age. I go to PlantFitness about 2 to 3 times a wk. so I would like to know what i should and should not be drinking.
    I have a heart condition called A-Fib. I’m taking meds for that and hi blood pressure and hi cholesterol.
    I know your no doctor but I still would like your thoughts.

    Thank you

    • Hi Jerry,

      I’d be happy to help. Are you referring to which electrolyte drinks you should or should not be drinking? Or general guidelines?

  7. I’m 15 years old and I was wondering if there is anything that I would be able to drink for energy, because when i play soccer of a weekend and sometimes during training I feel like I am completely out of energy, and this is with a banana smoothie before hand. So would there be anything that I could have instead that would give me more energy?

    Thanks in advance

    • Hey Ben,

      If you are not using an electrolyte drink yet, I would highly recommend using Hammer Nutrition Heed which will help with energy quite a bit. Drink 8 ounces 20-30 minutes prior, then continue to drink it throughout the duration. Your energy levels are also highly dependent on your meals leading up your game or practice. You may not be getting enough glycogen storage, and since you are 15, you are probably burning through fuel like an SUV. Increase your protein, carbs and fat for dinner the night before, breakfast and lunch 2 hours before a game or practice. Consider any of these bars prior if you still need more calories beforehand or if you want something convenient.

  8. I didn’t see GU Electrolyte Brew on your list. Where do you rate it. A doctor told me to drink it during gym work outs because I sweat so much and have back spasms occasionly. I am also diabetic so suger is a concern.

    • Hey Ash,

      GU Electrolyte Brews falls short on my list since it only contains sodium and potassium, and is lacking calcium, magnesium and chloride. Back spasms or any muscle spasms are usually from a lack of magnesium, as well as potassium and calcium. It terms of sugar and carbohydrates, this is going to depend on the activity since you also don’t want to get exercise induced hypoglycemia. I actually wrote a book on diabetes called The New Menu for Diabetes if you are looking for more ideas on meals, supplements and types of exercise for better blood sugar control.

  9. Hello. My husband (69) is a truck driver who loads his own trailer. After a hard day his hands and legs start cramping even though he is drinking lots of water during the day and ice tea at a restaurant in the evening. What can he take in his truck besides water?
    Thank you,

    • Hi Dianne,

      Water often is not hydrating enough because it is lacking electrolytes. I have found the Pure Encapsulations Electrolyte Energy Formula to be the best choice for long drives because the carbohydrate content is lower, but the concentration still requires a steady supply of glucose. If he is diabetic or prediabetic, Ultima will be a better choice. He could keep a bottle of water and the electrolyte drink in the truck along with electrolyte fruits like oranges, tangerines, apples and watermelon. He needs to also be eating a balance of protein, fat and carbs every 3-4 hours. This will help him recover faster. Protein bars can be a convenient way to do this.

  10. Hey Alex – I have found your article and responses to questions very informative. I have been using Cytomax powder for years and have recently started doing research on other options. I do have to admit I was surprised to see it under your worst list (ouch!).

    I am a runner (training for another marathon) and run a slower pace (10 min/mile) so it is not uncommon to be out running on a Saturday for 2-4 hours. It is so hot & humid this time of year that I am soaked from head to toe! I do eat GU while I run, but am curious what you recommend for a electrolyte drink. The Heed seems to be low on Sodium & Potassium…and I am not sure I need the extra carbs since I Gu. Thanks in advance!

    • Hey Melissa,

      You definitely want to have your bases covered since you are pushing your body to an extreme in hot weather for a long period of time. Typically for this type and duration of training in hot weather, Hammer Perpetuem is recommended if you do not mind using non-GMO soy, which helps with muscle recovery. It has 220mg of sodium and 120mg of potassium. It also has 54 grams of carbohydates, which means you could cut down on the GU. Another option is to combine the Hammer Heed with Endurolytes powder to customize the amounts of electrolytes, and continue to use the GU. Cytomax and Heed only have a 3 carb difference, so I wouldn’t worry about having too many carbs. Experiment and see what works best for your body.

      • Interesting feedback Alex. I don’t have an opinion on GMO one way or another and maybe I should?? In regards to the Perpetuem, it seems almost identical in carbs, sodium, and potassium to cytomax scoop to scoop. What am I missing?

        • Perpetuem actually uses a protein to carbohydrate ratio that Cytomax does not have. This is where I was referencing the non-GMO soy protein. The product most like Perpetuem is actually Accelerade (uses GMO soy protein). Protein helps carbohydrates work better and longer, while helping muscle recovery in long distance races. But, yes you definitely should have an opinion on GMO’s! The short version is that there are many documented health risks assoicated with GMO’s, and it’s the reason most of Europe is banning them. Anything hard on your body effects performance.

          I called the makers of Cytomax to find out what the artificial flavor was that isn’t labeled, and it turns out that they recently took it out and only use natural flavors now. That’s good, however I’m still not confident in their product because of the quality control problems they have had with Muscle Milk.

          • Sorry for the delayed response! Thank you for the details – very helpful. I will definitely try the Perpetuem and let you know! Thanks again!

  11. I have a condition called autonomic dysfunction, which is where the autonomic nervous system has a problem regulating everything from sweating to blood pressure (entirely too low) to breathing properly to heart rate to, well, you get the picture. Bodily functions that you don’t think about are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. One of my biggest problems is that I pass out regularly or become pre-syncopal. Generally, I’m always dizzy when I get up, even if I manage not to pass out.
    I am supposed to drink half my weight in ounces of electrolyte water, but have never found anything that has the right kind of plain water (usually just trace minerals). Or, as you have pointed out, things like Gatorade, Propel, etc. are just plain disgusting. Never liked them before I was diagnosed, either.
    Thank you for your recipe. I have purchased a mammoth glass container with a spigot on it along with pink Himalayan salt and distilled water. Had the citrus. It’s steeping like tea in the fridge right now. I’m hopeful that it’s the right mix for me. I’ve never been a fan of pulpy orange juice, though, so we’ll see how this goes. Do you strain it prior to drinking it or just go ahead and drink it this way?
    Thank you!

  12. Hi Delaney,

    That sounds very challenging for you to work with, and I’d like to help fine tune it for you. I’m a little unclear what  you mean by the “right kind of plain water?”Do you mean the type of water that is used in the pre-made drinks? Have you tried any of the electrolyte powders mentioned added to your own water? While the homemade drink is hydrating, you may require very precise amounts of different minerals as outlined by your doctor. Were you given target amounts of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium and magnesium each day?

    Also, the drink will taste like lightly flavored water, so don’t worry about it tasting like pulpy orange juice! You don’t need to strain it, just drink it straight.

  13. Sorry; the clarification on “plain” waters: I meant the brand “Smart Water” or the waters labeled “electrolyte” water by the Whole Foods chain or the Trader Joe’s stores. My electrophysiologist initially pointed out these waters, but I am learning that these are not enough trace minerals. He did not indicate that I needed to supplement with any one of the trace minerals specifically, other than increasing my salt intake.
    I have tried SEVERAL of those powders, and discovered that some are either entirely too salty to my taste or made with stevia, which is entirely too sweet. Apparently, I have Goldilocks syndrome. Nothing is just right.
    One of the challenges I face is that without medication, my blood pressure is generally in the low 80s/low 50s. With medication, I can bring it up to 96/64. That’s actually the highest consistent number for me, but it fluctuates at a ridiculous rate with that being the highest I can depend on having. Electrolyte water is the one thing that the doctor insists on me drinking. Increasing my salt intake is encouraged. I actually detest salt, and have never owned a salt shaker.
    I know I can order salt tabs from the internet, but we found this and it seemed like a great idea to make this to supplement as well.
    I didn’t use the cucumber as I happen to be allergic (that, and watermelon. Crazy foods to have allergies to, yet I am).
    Thanks so much for your response, Alex.

  14. Got it. In that case, this will be an improvement over the electrolyte waters on the market. Consider doubling the fruit if the taste is still agreeable for you. If you don’t mind the texture, chia seeds and limes can also be used. Chia seeds are a rich source of minerals and keep the body hydrated. They have been highlighted with runners for their ability to enable going longer without water.

    For example:
    32 oz. water
    2 limes sliced
    2 lemons slices
    1 Tbsp. chia seeds
    1/4 tsp. Himalayan sea salt
    *If you are not opposed to using raw sugar cane, a little bit can be added to balance the sourness. Sugar cane, chia seeds and lime juice is actually the drink highlighted in the book Born to Run from the Tarahumara runners.

    Keep me updated with how you feel and if you need anything improved without compromising the taste.

  15. Hi Alex, I hope you can help with this issue … My husband gets horrific leg cramps. Quite often his calf muscles are so tight they feel like extra bones when I massage them. It was suggested that he drink more electrolytes, such as Gatorade. Your article indicates this is not the best choice and I’m wondering which or the products you recommend would be better.
    I should mention that he’s 65 and recovering (nicely) from a bone marrow transplant. He has always been very active and is working hard to get back into shape, but the leg pain is slowing him down. I look forward to your reply. Thank you.

    • Hi Eileen,

      Leg cramps – especially in the calf – are almost always magnesium deficiencies. I usually recommend 400mg daily. It can also be a CoQ10 deficiency as well. This usually occurs if someone has taken a statin drug for an extended period of time, however in your husbands case he may be low depending on his condition. I would discuss both with your doctor. Magnesium Citramate and Q-Best 100mg by Thorne Research are both excellent products. For an electrolyte base for training I would recommend HEED for him. Please let me know if you have any other questions, and happy to hear your husband is recovering well!

  16. Thanks for the article and especially the responses in the commentary.  Its given me a lot to think about.  I never had to worry too much about hydration before moving to Houston and since I am an active runner/triathlete the humidity saps me very quickly.  I haven’t tried Heed (I will now though) and your article on Protein power also gave me some great info on the variations of those products.


  17. Hi Mara,

    Yes the overall mineral content is too low (although it does have a good amount of potassium), and incomplete. It is missing chloride and calcium and magnesium should be higher.

    • Hi Ed,

      Glad it was helpful. I think the Emergen-C electrolyte mix works fine if just want to increase your potassium and magnesium intake, and give filtered water a boost. As an electrolyte drink for working out and sweating, a similar but more complete version would be from Vega. If you need a fuel source as well for longer and more intense durations, then Heed or Performance will be best.

  18. I am in the middle of training in order to become a firefighter. In the coming weeks I will be wearing my full protective gear and sweating constantly while either standing there in the sun or doing drills.  What do you suggest I take to keep me operating optimally.  Thanks!!!

    • Hi James,

      Here is the program I have firefighters follow: (check with your doctor first)

      1. Heed or Performance for hydration during training and on the job.
      2. Grass-fed whey for post-workouts/training.
      3. Cordyceps to help withstand stress and increase oxygen transportation for better endurance.
      4. Magnesium Citramate: for muscle recovery, injury prevention, detoxication and heart health.
      5. Vitamin C: (100 percent l-ascorbate, avoid cheap vitamin C that is 50% d-ascorbate) to protect against the high toxic load, strengthen lung tissue and the blood vessel walls.

  19. Hai alex…i’m a swimmer…and i training 2 hours / i’m using accelerade  for my energy drink….if you may,there is have another option for my energy drink?or that accelerade its enough for me?

    Thx alex

    • Hi Ignas,

      It depends on your individual needs and digestion. If you feel like you are dragging or taking longer to recover, you need more and better fuel. I have had swimmers do great on Heed or Performance, and others do better on Perpetuem. For some athletes, protein during swimming can lead to stomach cramps, while others who have a faster burning rate, require a protein/higher carbohydrate drink. I recommend Perpetuem by Hammer Nutrition over Accelerade since Perpetuem uses non-GMO soy protein and has a higher carbohydrate content (21g vs 54g), typically better for that 2-3 hour range.

  20. Hi Alex,

    I’m a Birth and Postpartum Doula and I’m doing a bit of research for my clients. As a Birth Doula, I assist parents in a non-medical manner during the childbirth process. Many of them choose to opt out of IV fluids and just orally hydrate themselves, the common recommendation being with coconut water or gatorade however I’d like to recommend something more nutritious and effective. Some clients will snack throughout labor but many can’t keep any food down which is difficult since childbirth can last many many hours (the longest I’ve attended was 46 hours). Which electrolyte drink would you recommend for a long but consistent level of activity? Instead of drinking large amounts, I encourage them to take small sips every few minutes. Something that’ll give them the energy to keep going while helping prevent muscle fatigue (we move a lot through labor and the uterus is a big ole muscle too!) My clients tend to prefer non-GMO products that are as natural as possible too.

    Thanks in advance!

    • Hi Tatiana,

      Yes you definitely treat it like a marathon! We have actually had clients during the childbirth process use electrolyte drinks in the form of ice chips. It is very effective. Heed will probably best meet the criteria of your clients.

  21. Alex…great info, thanks…I’m a 66 year old golfer in Phoenix…every summer we play golf in Palm Springs, which is generally hotter than Phoenix…last year I drank water all day long, thinking I was hydrating myself…on the second night, I almost made my buddy take me to an emergency room because of leg cramps, both legs, feet, and toes…very painful…my question is, being out of town and not having a convenient way to carry and mix a powdered electrolyte drink, what options are available?…I normally try to drink Gatorade because it’s readily available (on the beverage cart and in golf shop) but after reading your report I don’t think that’s an option anymore…and, what about eating bananas during the round, will that help much?…thanks Alex

    • Hi Dave,

      You can usually find coconut water just about anywhere now, so I would pick that up near the course (they may even have it at the course). Bananas help, along with watery fruit like oranges and watermelon. If it is going to be brutally hot, it is worth the extra effort of making a jug of the electrolyte drink with ice in the morning and keeping it in the cart. My dad is an avid golfer and he swears by doing this now.

      • Thanks, Alex…very helpful info…I’ll mix up a jug of your electrolyte in phoenix and take it with me to dole out each morning into a thermos with ice…hopefully that will get me through the three rounds of golf we play each day.

  22. Alex, found your articles very interesting and would like to have some advice. I’ve been working on crew ships for almost 15 years and I believe the food onboard does not have natural nutrition like when serving fresh food at home. I believe my body lacks nutritions and seeking advice on products to help improve living a healthy life. I hardly exercise as the muscle spasms avoid me from doing so, being slightly active the next day my body suffers from stiff muscles. Doing some research they recommend the following products:

    It is commonly thought that dehydration and depletion of electrolytes will lead to muscle spasm and cramping. Muscle cells require enough water, glucose, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium to allow the proteins within them to interact and develop an organized contraction. Abnormal supply of these elements can cause the muscle to become irritable and go into spasm.

    Do you have any suggestions for me, I would like to get back into the gym without having the fear of spasms for hours.

    • Hi Louis,

      It can be hard enough to obtain the proper amount of nutrients needed from a regular diet, but it can be extremely challenging in your line of work. Without knowing more about you, I can’t comment on anything above the basics. You should definitely consider a multi-vitamin, extra magnesium citramate (500mg daily split into two doses), vitamin C and an electrolyte drink daily along with water (any of these mentioned in this article should be fine). I don’t know if you are taking a statin drug, but these can deplete CoQ10 levels and cause muscle spasms as well. Make sure after you workout that you consume protein.

      Avoid cheap versions of these vitamins because they will not do you any good. Here is an analysis on multivitamins and vitamin C.

      This should help get you back in the gym without any fear! I know how frustrating that can be.

  23. Alex, very informative site and thanks for sharing. I play lots of singles tennis in hot TX weather and will try your electrolyte recommendation as my current hydration drink, Gatorade (embarrassed to say) doesn’t seem to help in tougher matches and I find myself sluggish & on the verge of cramping in the later sets. I have a few questions if you don’t mind answering.

    1. Will I be taking in too much carbs if I use Heed for hydration along with a gel like Hammer?

    2. I didn’t see any recovery recommendation so I’ll ask it here. What would you recommend for recovery if I had to play multiple matches a day, usually three hours apart?


    • Hi Nick,

      I hope you don’t mind, but I’m going to give a little longer answer because I think this could help other people as well.

      1. Tennis burns approximately 584 calories for a 160lb man per hour of play. This of course will range based on intensity, weight and weather conditions. That’s 146 calories per 15 minutes of intense play. Your body has a glycogen storage capacity of about 2000 calories, which makes your meals of protein, fat and carbohydrates the night before and morning of very important. This puts the typical glycogen range of 2-3 hours without proper recovery due to numerous variables. At this range and higher, protein becomes an important player for muscle recovery and extending carbohydrate life.

      When you sweat, you are losing sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, magnesium and other trace minerals. Since you are in intense heat and playing tennis, you are most likely at the top tier of electrolyte loss and Gatorade only addresses sodium and potassium.

      To answer your first question, that combination wouldn’t contain too many carbs however it isn’t addressing protein and extra electrolytes.

      2. I would recommend experimenting with Heed during your matches and Hammer Nutrition Perpetuem as a recovery in-between your matches. As you can see from the profile, this will take the place of the gel while providing more electrolytes and protein.

      Perpeteum was designed for all day endurance events in mind, but with a three hour break you could also include snacks like raw or sprouted trail mix, protein bars and fruit like oranges, watermelon, dates and bananas.

      Good luck!

  24. How much magnesium citramate and how much COQ 10 should I take for calf cramps. I take vytorin…Also, I am going to Machu Picchu and want to stay hydrated. What would you recommend? I tend to run a little dehydrated anyway. Thanks!

    • Hi Janet,

      You may find this article helpful regarding Vytorin and CoQ10 dosage.

      If you still experience muscle pain with CoQ10 supplementation, you will want to talk to your doctor regarding the possible side effects of Vytorin. Have you had your magnesium and potassium levels checked? Your doctor should recommend your dosage since he has access to your blood work.

      Regarding hydration, you may want to consider the Vega single serving packets or Hammer Endurolytes Fizz since they would be easy to pack and throw in bottled water. You may also have access to coconut water. Machu Picchu is definitely on my future travel list as well!

    • Hi Dennis,

      Sodium Phosphate appears to be safe as long as you are cognizant of your dietary sodium intake during the loading phase. If your diet is high in sodium and you are loading with sodium phosphate, you are going to have issues especially with hydration. I haven’t used it, nor have I spoken with anyone personally that has. I read the study they referenced and the reviews, and it sounds like it works. Let me know if you try it and what you think.

  25. Hi alex,

    Im an avid hiker and just recently got into backpacking about a year ago. Sometimes ill go out for 10 to 12 hr dayhikes, camp the night, then either do a turn around or extend my overnight trip. Water is my main source of hydration and after reading this article, i realize i need to do more on preventing some of my leg cramps. So i was wondering what would be best for me before, during, and after my backpacking trips in order to cut back on some painful wilderness nights.

    • Hi Erickson,

      Since every ounce counts for backpacking trips, I would go with the Hammer Endurolytes Fizz. You can bring enough tablets based on your water consumption, and it will help prevent anymore leg cramps. Keep magnesium and potassium rich snacks (nuts, seeds and dried fruits like apricots and shredded coconut) along with sufficient protein, and you should sleep much better.

  26. Hi, I would like to know your thoughts on the following product as an electrolyte replacement. Its called Recovery e21. Please visit

    I look for natural solutions to recommend to my clients and have not found many that are sugar free, fat free and organic. This looks to fit the bill but I would like an expert opinion and if you have any other natural products you could recommend that would be great.



    • Dunaliella salina is definitely interesting due to its carotenoid content (it is used in high quality multi-vitamins for natural beta-carotene, unlike synthetic beta-carotene in others) and detoxification properties. The 9-cis isomer found in natural beta-carotene is considered to be one of nature’s most powerful antioxidants. I’ve seen studies that it also is photo-protective against the sun; a bonus for athletes and anyone who is also trying to raise their vitamin D level.

      It took me a while to find an actual ingredient list with the amounts for this product, but it appears to have a unique profile beyond the electrolytes. While this isn’t an electrolyte drink, I haven’t read anything that we make me hesitant about trying it as a supplement.

  27. Hi there my husband has an illeostomy. He already has had a surgery for dehydration (bladder stones build up) he feels dizzy from dehydration allot from this condition. What do you recommend since he is constantly losing water from his bag. He lost his colon due to cancer. Please help as his mom says smart water, doctors say gatorade and I just want the best for him and to feel better again

    • Hi Kristy,

      I am really sorry to hear he is struggling. I’m sure that is very hard for both of you. Smart Water does not contain enough electrolytes to make a difference, and you read about Gatorade. He should also be avoiding BPA from plastic bottles, which has been linked to DNA damage and cancer among many other things. Stick with glass. I would recommend using HEED. I would also recommend making a batch, and filling ice cube trays half full. That way he can slowly hydrate himself with the ice cubes without losing too much liquid at once.

  28. I’m almost 40. Lately I’ve been having leg cramps in my thighs on both sides and in all muscle groups. I’m on a simvisation for high cholesterol. I’m not a runner in fact I’m afraid to us my legs at all for fear of them cramping. My doc told me to us a electrolyte powder thinking that I might not have enough. I’ve been taking 50 MG of magnesium for about 2 weeks now and 500 MG potassium along with calcium but I’ve not noticedoing a difference. If you have any suggestions I would be very interested in them.

    • Hi Mike,

      What you are experiencing is most likely a CoQ10 deficiency caused by the statin drug. People on statins are generally recommended to supplement with CoQ10 (use a high quality one like Q-Best by Thorne Research) to prevent muscle pain and strengthen the heart. If this doesn’t work, you may want to discuss other strategies with your doctor for a healthy cholesterol panel.

  29. I’m almost 40. Lately I’ve been having leg cramps in my thighs and calves on both sides and in all muscle groups. I’very been on simvisation for high cholesterol for about 3 years I think. I’m not a runner in fact I’m afraid to us my legs at all for fear of them cramping. My doc told me to us a electrolyte powder thinking that I might not have enough. I’ve been taking 500 MG of magnesium for about 2 weeks now and 500 MG potassium along with calcium but I’ve not noticed a difference. If you have any suggestions I would be very interested in them.

  30. Hi Alex – Thanks for the research – I do bikram yoga and I found that either coconut water or an energy drink takes away the yoga ‘coma’ after – I’m giving up Vitamin Water (too much sugar) but have found an electrolyte by TraceMinerals called Power Pak- they also have ‘green’ and ‘red’ veggie packs – Have you heard of this brand? And, is it legit?

    My yoga studio used to carry these, and I got really into them. But, now they are switching to Ultima Replenisher, which has a very strong after-taste that stays with me for hours, so, I find it hard to believe it’s really that good for you.

    Any feedback on TraceMinerals would be great – thanks!

    • Hi Nikki,

      That strong taste is from combining lo han guo and stevia together, both of which are really sweet. I’m with you, I think it is too strong and just one of them would have been plenty. But some people like it and it is one of the best ones I’ve seen for diabetics in particular.

      Could you send me a link to the one you are looking at?

      • Hi Nikki,

        I know the company Trace Minerals Research, and they have always given me prompt, thorough replies to my questions about their products. This formula looks like they tried to take Emergen-C to the next level.

        What would stop me from recommending this product is the use of crystalline fructose, even in a small amount. It is 98% fructose, and is basically a crystalized version of high fructose corn syrup with a higher fructose level. The production of both yields heavy metal contamination. Vitaminwater use to have crystalline fructose on their label, but now says cane sugar. I’ll have to look into that change. Isolated fructose is linked with fatty liver and obesity, and all disorders that follow. If they take this out and just use stevia, I’m on board.

        • Wow, thanks for checking that out Alex and for the information – I wonder why they decided on the fructose? Too bad as I’m liking their product – the fast and the way I feel energized. Anyway, thanks again. Your fast response and depth of knowledge is appreciated- cheers.

  31. Hello! Thank you so much for the thoughtful and helpful research you do. I was hoping you would look into Clif Shot’s Electrolyte Hydration drink mix. I had no idea that I needed Magnesium (embarrassing)…but I was drawn to research after I tried this as my electrolyte replenishment. I was using Cytomax and I was feeling my stomach clench up on me. Oh, and I am a cyclist…usually out for 2 to 3 hours at a time on road and mountain bike.

    • Hi Yovonne,

      The Clif Shot Electrolyte Hydration Mix uses calcium citrate and magnesium citrate, which gives it a thumbs up because they are easier to absorb, oxides are the hardest. 250mg is a pretty hefty dose of sodium, which means they designed it with very heavy sweat in mind. For that amount sodium, the ratio of potassium should be higher. It is missing chloride and really lacking in magnesium, which is what it sounds like you may need the most at only 4%, about 15mg. If your stomach is sensitive, you may do better keeping your carbs and electrolyte drinks separate, making the Hammer Endurolytes Fizz a good fit.

  32. Hi — How about SaltStick caps and Elete Etectrolyte water.

    I’ve heard these products from my friends who are doing endurance-cycling.

    I will be training for half-marathon (Dec) hence looking for electrolyte-supplement for my long-run-training.. Thanks!

    • I have heard of SaltStick, and it is solid for heavy sweat loss during long endurance races. The citrate forms of the minerals are easy to absorb, and I like that the formula uses the less talked about mineral chloride. In fact, I have been considering adding it to this article, so thank you for reminding me.

      Elete is very similar to Endure, and I think is fine as a general activity electrolyte replacement. Both however are missing calcium, so if I’m using something like this it is in combination with other ingredients for endurance events.

  33. Hi I am having issues with hamstring and quad cramps with any triathlon from half IM to a full IM. Do you have any suggestions for fueling to alleviate cramping??

      • I have been using EFS for my drink and endurolytes for extra electrolytes. I also use Hammer and GU gels for my carbs. I try to take in 400 calories an hour with drink and gels or other carbohydrates such as hammer bars. I use plain water when I am eating gels or bars etc. I have tried Hammer Perpetuem but have had a hard time keeping it from souring in my bottles in IM races. I just recently completed IM Chattanooga and felt great on swim and bike but started cramping at about 6 miles on the run. I am wondering after reading some of your post if I could have CQ10 or Magnesium deficiency ? Oh and I am a very heavy sweater!

        • Based on that program, it doesn’t sound like you are deficient in any minerals. CoQ10 deficiency usually occurs from taking a statin drug, but would be more chronic throughout the day. What is your height and weight, and how much protein are you getting per day?

          • I am 6’3″ tall and 190 lbs. I am only taking in the protein that is in the Hammer Peanut Butter gels at IM Chattanooga because I couldn’t use the Perpetuem. I tried to use 2 gels an hour along with water and the EFS for calories. I did use one small Chia Warrior bar also. Oh one other thing I was thinking. I did take in extra water because i was afraid I would get dehydrated and cramp. Could I possibly over used the H2O?

          • Without doing a full analysis, yes my best inclination would be that you are drinking too much water, which is diluting your electrolytes (along with electrolyte loss during heavy sweating). Use water as needed, but concentrate more on your electrolyte drinks throughout the race. Make sure you are also getting enough protein, B-vitamins and vitamin C on a daily basis.

  34. I have continued issues of partial small intestine blockage due to adhesions (already had one surgery due to complete blockage six months ago). I am on a liquid only diet and my specialist says I also have dehydration issues and need electrolytes. I do not know what to use other then I need this now and it needs to be something I can find at local stores. Can you give me suggestions?

    • Hi Corinne,

      You should be able to find Vega and Ultima at most health food stores like Whole Foods. If you don’t have any of these stores nearby, let me know which stores are near you and I can figure out your best option. I hope you feel better.

  35. I have recently purchased Metagenics’ Endura for my son who cuts large amounts of weight for wrestling and competes in day long tournaments. So far he really likes this product. They mention that they have a patent on their delivery of magnesium which they claim is the hardest electrolyte to find in foods.
    Wondering if you have ever heard of this product and what your opinion is?
    My son has always been picky about the tastes of these powders and this one (lemon-lime) seem to have a taste similar to the not-so-good gatorade.

    • Hi Jim,

      Metagenics usually makes good products and while the magnesium content is excellent, I disagree with their use of crystalline fructose. We know the problems associated with high fructose corn syrup, and crystalline fructose is even higher (HFCS is at 42% to 55% fructose, while crystalline fructose is roughly 99%). There is also the risk of heavy metal contamination with both HFCS and crystalline fructose.

  36. Hello,

    I have severe endometriosis and have had 2 surgeries already for it. Last surgery I had a large cyst pushing into my colon. I believe I have endo of the bowels again and it’s been causing all sorts of issues. I also had low chloride levels on a saliva test ( I feel dehydrated a lot). I take 200mg of magnesium citrate for it. I have an upcoming surgery in Dec and the bowel prep instructs to use Gatorade or powerade along with miralax etc. what’s the best option to replace the Gatorade with ? Thanks!

    • Hi Kristin,

      I recommend using the Pure Encapsulations Electrolyte Energy Formula. It will give you the electrolytes needed, while also providing nutrients that will aid in your recovery from the surgery. If there is any way our health center can be more of help, please contact

  37. Hello,

    My bowel prep instructs to take Gatorade or Powerade with miralax, etc. What could I replace the Gatorade with? Thanks !

  38. Thanks for the awesome info, I’m going to India for a month & I have been before so I was looking into electrolyte mixes I could use when I’m suffering from a bout of travelers diarrhea to help out with the dehydration. Correct me if I’m wrong, but It seems to me that I could bring a bag of Heeds electrolyte drink mix to help out. Or is there something better/cheaper? cuz I was also thinking that drink mix might be good for a little extra energy since I’ll be out exploring all day long every day for 8-10 hours a day.
    BUT I wanted to add something else… when when I was on-line looking for cheapest place to buy, I came across this statement on Amazons website & found it to be humorous & wanted your opinion on it….

    Found in product description…
    ” Heed’s sweeteners – stevia and xylitol – are actually good for you, xylitol being especially beneficial.”

    First off, is this copied straight from the Hammer website (I tried to look myself but it just wouldn’t load) & if so I thought xylitol actually GAVE some people diarrhea if consumed to much?

    • Hi Isis,

      Xylitol in larger doses can cause stomach issues for some, however I haven’t seen it happen with all of the athletes I’ve worked with, even when drinking quite a bit for day events. Another tip for preventing traveler’s diarrhea is to take a high quality probiotic daily that doesn’t need refrigeration, and choosing fermented foods and drinks when available.

      As to why you would choose to the Endurolytes Fizz over the Heed powder, it is a matter of preference. Some cyclists prefer to have a separate carbohydrate source and just electrolytes in their water. The Fizz tabs are more convenient if you want to add it to bottled water or you don’t want to worry about having to pour the powder and mix it, no perforated ziplock back spilling issues for day trips, and are lighter (for backpackers for example). But if you want an fuel source along with electrolytes and you have a home base to make it, the powder is the best combination.

  39. Also why would I choose the HEED Endurolytes fizz/tabs VS the HEED sports drink? Again I’m wanting to bring (a bunch) with me on my trip to India becasue I always suffer from TD when eating different cuisines, even if I don’t have dysentery, I just have a sensitive stomach.

  40. I’m 18 yrs old. Right now I weightlift 3 days straight then a day or two of rest. I do leg day: squat, SLDL, calf raise, sprints, core day: weighted crunches, hip extensions, side bends, torso twist, upper body day: shoulder press, pull ups, dips, fore arm curls, then a day or two of rest from weightlifting. On the off days I run up to five miles. I stretch before and after. Short workouts compared to what you were referring to. I am interested in electrolytes because I have been getting headrushes for a while and looked up possible reasons, found that electrolyte deficiency might be one, started drinking Gatorade during my workouts (yea saw that you were against it) and the headrushes diminished. I was going to buy Gatorade powder but then I decided to research other possible electrolyte powders. Also I want to drink this powder throughout the day (at much more diluted concentrations). Would hammer heed be the best option (or do I need something meant for a shorter burst time activity?)/ is it a bad idea to drink throughout the day (at diluted concentrations). The reason I want some throughout the day is because I drink a lot of water and have relatively clear urine which I read its better to drink water with some (little bit) electrolytes than raw water.

    • Hi Trent,

      It depends on what you are looking for. Generally if weight loss is your goal, you would want an electrolyte drink with less carbohydrates for that type of workout regime. If this isn’t a concern and you are a hard gainer – and feeling like you could use more fuel – then Heed will fit the bill. Yes, if you are you are drinking too much water, you may be clearing out a lot of minerals. You want to be more moderate with water consumption unless you are losing a lot of sweat. Another option is to add the Endure Performance Electrolyte drops to your regular water bottle, which may be a better fit for the gym/runs and as something to drink throughout the day.

      • Thanks for the reply. I lift solely for performance not appearance. I’m currently 160lb. I am not concerned with losing or gaining weight particularly (if weight gain/loss is a consequence of improved performance (more reps or more weight) that is fine). I used to box squat and reached a (1 rep) max of 405lb a year ago. I stopped “ego lifting” and shifted to full squat and plateaued at 265 lb a month ago. My goal is to hit 315 lb full squat as fast as possible (efficient workouts plus nutrition plus recovery (sleep)). I workout in the mornings an hour after I wake up: I wake up, I eat a bagel, drink a protein shake, stretch, then work out. I started drinking Gatorade during my workouts to avoid headrushes (I plan on trading off to a different drink due to bad reviews on Gatorade). I drink a protein shake after my workout stretch and then just consume lots of carbs and protein throughout the day with balanced diet (including dairy, veggies and fruits). In my case I’m under the impression eating too much is better than not eating enough.

        I sweat but no where near marathon levels. The only reason why I want electrolytes is because of head rushes during my workouts plus to avoid excessively clear urine throughout the day (I drink good amount of water).

        With this new information would you still suggest Heed or Endure performance/ I’m thinking these are name brand goods. Are there relatively cheaper good subsitutes you are aware of that would fit my needs (avoid headrushes during workout and prevent mineral loss throughout the day)?

        • PS: I drink lots water because I’ve heard that keeping the muscles well hydrated not only improves performance during lifts but also speeds up recovery. So far this has been true for me.

        • Hi Trent,

          Yes, with that information in hand, Heed would be the best fit for you. Price wise and quality, I would say that getting the Heed in bulk and diluting it will make it more economical while being effective for your needs. Unfortunately with most cheap substitutes, you get cheap/harmful ingredients. Since you are focusing on performance, it is definitely worth the cost to help you reach your goals.

  41. Hi, I have been diagnosed with hyponatremia and since I have no known cause what’s causing it my Dr has limited me to 1 glass of water a day. She told me to drink other electrolyte drinks instead and I noticed Gatorade and powerade is awful for you with how much sugar they have. Is there something that’s better with lower amounts of sugar? I’ve discovered vitalyte and love the light taste of it. I just wasn’t sure if there’s something that tastes as good that might be better but isn’t going to cost a ton of money. Thank you!

    • Hi Nicole,

      If you are drinking it throughout the day without exercising you probably want something sweetened with stevia or lo han guo to avoid excess sugar. You can use Ultima, but add a pinch of sea salt since is too low in sodium for you. Or the Vega Electrolyte Hydrator, just dilute it quite a bit so the flavor isn’t too strong. The most affordable option would probably be to use the Endure Electrolyte Drops, and the juice of 1 orange wedge or lemon wedge for flavor.

  42. Hi, I recently started playing basketball and I am going to the point of exhaustion and sweating a ton to where my mouth is bone dry. I admit, sometimes I can barely catch my breath. The last three times I’ve played I have gotten a migraine. I did some research and some believe it is due to lack of proper fluids and food before, during and after playing (usually a hour at a very high pace). Do you have any experience in this or recommend any type of plan? Thanks

    • Hi Ryan,

      Yes, it could be as simple as dehydration due to a lack of electrolytes. The migraine is a clue to that. I would need to look at a food diary and your fluid consumption to give a more accurate answer, but the first step I would recommend is trying one of the electrolyte drinks on this list before, during and after playing. You also will want to try have a protein shake with some fat and carbohydrates afterwards to prevent a low blood sugar crash which could also be occurring. Here is the article on the protein powders I recommend.

  43. I’m low on electrolytes because I’m taking Indapamide Hemihydrate
    I know I should ask my doctor but he won’t be bothered. What can I drink that has some good old fashioned electrolytes? Not too much but enough. Thak-you for your time.

    • Hi John,

      If you are exercising regularly, then Heed is a good fit. Electrolyte Energy Formula is good for moderate activity. Ultima is a good fit if you have blood sugar issues. For just straight electrolytes to add to your water without anything else, the Endure drops are the best fit.

  44. I am interested in using a supplement like the hammer fizz that you show here but don’t want Stevie extract. Is there something you could recommend? I’m just wanting the electrolyte aspect not a carb or protein sup. I like that the Fizz has a good spectrum of electrolytes vitamins just not a fan of Stevie or fo-sugers.

    • Hi Tiffany,

      Hammer also makes capsules called Endurolytes, and Trace Minerals Research makes drops called Endure.

  45. Hi Rick,

    I’m a bit confused on your rating of NUUN active. It does contain vitamin C. Is it not a high enough concentration or did the product not contain it when you reviewed it in 2013. Thanks! Great article :)

    • Hi Jeni,

      You are right! The NUUN Hydration does contain vitamin C, and it is the one that contains sodium benzoate. I’m not sure if this changed or I somehow missed that, but consider this article updated. -Alex

  46. Hi Alex,
    I’ll be embarking on a bikram (hot) yoga teacher training and will be doing yoga 11x per week for 9 weeks. I’ll be in Thailand so I won’t readily have access to supplements – what would you recommend I take with me from the states? I currently take corvalen for fibromyalgia. I’ll need great endurance, speedy recovery, and high performance, and willbe sweating ALOT for 9 weeks. I don’t like Ultima as stevia and other sweeteners upset my stomach, but I’m fine with sugar. And because I’ll be in Thailand I won’t be able to eat lots of fresh fruit or veggies because of bacterial contamination.

    • Hi Kim,

      Due to that climate and hot yoga, I would test out the SaltStick capsules and see how you feel. You will be losing a lot of sodium along with the other electrolytes – and since you have fibromyalgia – you also want to make sure you are getting enough magnesium (malate or citrate/malate are best). I would definitely take advantage of fresh coconut water there as well for a fuel and additional hydration source.

  47. I’ve been using Vitalyte since its ‘ERG’ name days (late 60’s). I’ve found it to be the drink that works best for me. I’ve recommended it to other runners and bikers, and most begin using it. I had an experience a few years ago when a college age runner collapsed at the finish of a trail relay in high 90’s deg weather. He was not responding, and an ambulance was called. I had the race folks give him the remainder of Vitalyte in my water bottle. Within about one minute he was up and coherent. He was checked by the ambulance folks when they arrived and deemed ok (no ride to the ER or an IV needed). Vitalyte lived up to its reputation as an ‘oral IV’.

  48. Hi Alex. I just found this site today and love it. My husband gets leg muscle pain that wakes him up at night. It isn’t pain like charley horses. I was looking for something that may help that doesn’t contain sugar. I was reading about LyteShow. Would you recommend this product?

    • Hey Sandra,

      Glad you like it! It sounds like he may have a classic magnesium deficiency. You can try Lyteshow. It has the same source as Trace Minerals Research, which are iozined minerals from the Great Salt Lake. If that doesn’t do it, you might want to consider Magnesium Citramate.

  49. Hey Alex,

    Great article! Just wanted your advice when it comes to what electrolytes to go with. I lift 3 days a week, usually moderate weight, minimal breaks, high intensity training. Other days I’m in active recovery through basketball or tennis. I’m looking for a product that I can take during games/matches and lift session. Thoughts? Thank you

    • Hey Kevin,

      Very sorry, but I responded to a comment that I thought was yours and just noticed it was placed in another article! Thanks for the feedback. Heed would probably be the best one to use for everything. Personally I like to dilute it more during lifting and use the regular serving size for sports.

  50. What would you recommend for a person going to Haiti and will be working outside during about 90-100degree temp?

    • Hi Bob,

      I think for that situation, the Saltstick electrolyte capsules are going to be the best option.

  51. Hey Alex,

    Great insight into each drink. I am ramping up training for my Fall marathon and will be running many hours/miles in the heat of the summer down here in North Carolina. I am 6′ 3” 185 lbs and sweat a lot (definitely more than average). On my long runs I am usually soaked toward the end and can feel my body becoming dehydrated sometimes. I realize this is the nature of the beast with running in warm temps for hours on end, but I was wondering what product(s) you think would be best to combat this? I’ve been using Gatorade Endurance & GU’s for the last few years of training, but am thinking an alternative might be better.

    • Hey Phil,

      I just added the results to this article from a double blind placebo study done in Spain published just a few months ago. They found that adding the salt capsules (Saltstick) in addition to a sports drink resulted in athletes in a Half Ironman finishing the race 26 minutes faster than the control group. I know that sports drinks typically have lower sodium levels because too much would ruin the taste, but it needs to be higher to successfully replenish the loss. So combining Heed and Saltstick might be the optimal combination for endurance races with heavy sweat loss. You can see more details under Saltstick in this article. Good luck in the marathon! Keep me updated.

  52. Hi Alex,

    I just found this website and your comments last night and have found them to be very informative and was wondering if you could help me.

    I am an endurance athlete, and started triathlon just over 3 years now. Over the past 3 years, I have done a handful of Sprints and Olympics and two Half Ironmen and am getting ready for Mont Tremblant Full Ironman, in Canada, in August 2015.

    I am SERIOUSLY cramping in my legs…calves, quads, hamstrings, shins…you name it, when I swim, but biking and running is okay, they spasm a bit, but manageable. The cramps are so debilitating in the water that I thought I was going to drown the other day, as both calves cramped at the same time and I needed assistance from a team mate. Without her, I don’t know what I would have done.

    I have been to my GP and PA and even an orthopedic specialist. Blood test show all, thyroid, magnesium, potasium is normal except iron, ferritin levels very low (19). I am taking iron supplements now as well as 250mg Magnesium Citrate (twice daily).

    If I can’t get through the swim I am DONE! (I am not a quitter)

    I try to drink 64 ounces of water daily, however it doesn’t always work nor does it help and now realize there is not enough electrolytes in water. I have been drinking when I train, Coco Hydro Sport Plant Based Electrolyte Drink Mix (powder form) and taking SaltSticks when I bike and run.

    The Coco Hydro is 75mg Sodium, 470mg Potassium, 15g Carbohydrate, 150% Vitamin C, 2% Zinc, 4% Calcium, 10% Manganese and 20% Magnesium.

    What can I do to stop the leg cramps. I am at a loss, freaking out that I will DNF the race and that is NOT me!!!!!

    What is the best electrolyte drink for me and what else can I do? Should I be drinking an electrolyte drink daily? I’ve been told you don’t store electrolytes and that won’t help?

    I need someone’s help….like you!

    Please, Please, Please let me know what you think and I will be FOREVER indebted to you.

    Thank you in advance and GOD Bless, Scott R Van Horn

    • Hi Scott,

      Wow that sounds extremely frustrating. Without knowing more about your diet and health history, I’ll do my best with the information you have provided. The only clue I have is the very low ferritin levels, and endurance athletes lose a lot of iron. The target intake is about 30% higher intake than normal. Ferritin is the storage of iron, and iron transports oxygen through the blood. B12, B6 and folate are the main nutrients needed along with iron/copper for red blood cell production. Low iron causes anemic hypoxia (low oxygen), elevated nitric oxide (NO) and increased lactic acid. The spasms might be severe oxygen deprivation when the body is failing to send sufficient blood and oxygen to the muscles. Swimming requires blood and oxygen to circulate to every working part of your body from head to toe, which is probably why it becomes most evident then. The hypoxia creates considerable oxidative stress/pain by NO, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and peroxynitrite. Catalayse and peroxidase are example enzymes that need heme iron to successfully breakdown hydrogen peroxide to stop the inflammation. In other words, your iron/B-vitamin status are most likely playing a major role.

      The following should be approved by your doctor. Your B12, folate, B6 and iron levels need to be optimized from eggs, liver, red meat and lots of leafy greens. Vitamin C supplementation (requirements also go way up) and vitamin A (cod liver oil or wild salmon oil) should be added with the iron to increase retention and improve recovery. Cordyceps should be considered due to their role in inhibiting hypoxia induced oxidative stress. Switch to Magnesium Citramate which is more effective for muscle health, and you may require higher amounts (6-9mg per kg of bodyweight). I would recommend Heed over your current drink because you need more carbohydrates than you are getting from that drink. The Saltstick capsules are excellent. Make sure you are getting enough protein for proper recovery. For regular water, add the Trace Minerals Concentrace drops and don’t go overboard with water consumption when you aren’t training.

      This is the best I can do with the information given. There is always an answer and hope this helps!

  53. Do you have any information from USADA on your recommended products? We are an Olympic Development Program out of Tampa, FL. We spend over three weeks in June/July in Colorado Springs, CO at National Championships. The events last from 0800-1700 and we are outside all day long, competing periodically. What would you recommend for fuel and hydration for athletes ages 12-20?

    • Hi Bonnie,

      The Hammer Heed product has rigorous purity testing, and they have had both professional and Olympic athletes use their products. However, I called the company and only Endurolytes and Endurolytes Extreme has the certification testing for the USADA according to the owner of Hammer. Heed does not, but this appears to be because it would increase the price too much. Every lot of Saltstick has been tested for WADA prohibited substances.

      There are many variables depending on their diet, two different climates that increased hydration needs, individual constitutions/age, type of training/events to give a broad recommendation. Would you be able to provide me more information regarding their diet and the type of training they will be doing?

    • Hi David,

      I just added Pedialyte to the worst list. It uses sucralose, which is detrimental to intestinal bacteria. GI issues are not something you want while competing. It is lacking magnesium and calcium, with magnesium being a major priority to prevent muscle cramps. And it uses food dyes that studies have found to inhibit mitochondrial respiration; how you generate energy from nutrients. That’s a pretty big deal and a commonality a lot of these drinks share.

  54. I was so surprised to read your article and list of best and worst electrolyte drinks. I am 68 years old, active and was just diagnosed with Orthostatic hypertension. I read the comment by someone else with the same problem at the beginning of the comments list. My cardiologist recommended all the sports waters and Nuun tablets from the worst list! Coming from a family of medical people, I realize they don’t get very much if any education on nutrition. My question is: where do I purchase the products on the best list. I travel a great deal and won’t have reverse osmosis water when I’m not at home. Is one of the sports drinks less bad than others?

    • Hi Linda,

      The products on the best list can be found at Amazon, and some may be found in stores like REI or Whole Foods. If you are traveling, I would consider running the Hammer Endurolyte Fizz tablets by your doctor.

  55. Hello! My husband is a welder and spends 10-12 hours a day in the 90*+ weather. What would you suggest for him? Also, if no pedialyte, what do you use? I have a 17month old and a 5 year old. My 5 year gets dehydrated fairly quickly, even when he isn’t sick.

    • Hi Tanya,

      Check with your doctor first, but Ultima should be a good replacement for Pedialyte for both the 17 month old and 5 year old. Your husband would probably do best with Heed or the Endure Electrolyte drops.

  56. My husband and I are going with a youth group on a pioneer trek reenactment at the end of July. We will be walking 6 miles, then 10 miles and finishing the last day with 14 miles. What would you recommend for hydration for these long, hot days? Thank you!

    • Hi Rebekah,

      I have found that the Hammer Endurolyte Fizz tablets work best for long hikes. They are light, take up very little room and are easy to add to your water bottle. Also unlike powders, you don’t have to worry about it spilling. That sounds like an incredible adventure!

  57. I just came across this article. Is there an update in the works? There are several new products on the market (i.e. Gatorade Endurance, Skratch Labs, Osmo Nutrition, and Inifit Nutrition). Do you have recommendations for athletes with high sweat rates/salty sweaters?

    • Hey Tim,

      Yes I make updates monthly. Formulations are always changing and new products are constantly hitting the market. I take time to research and test products before I decide to include any new ones in the best or worst section. If they are close to other products that I have already mentioned, I do not include them. Gatorade Endurance for example still has a combination of sugar, yellow #5, natural flavor that I suspect may have MSG (hard to determine since it is protected information), and a small amount of magnesium oxide. I’m trying to get all companies to stop using magnesium oxide in their formulations and switch it to more absorbable forms. For athletes with a high sweat rate, I recommend combining Heed and Saltstick, which has the research I just added last month under Saltstick to back it up.

  58. My wife had a kidney transplant 3 years ago, and has frequent bouts of dehydration and cramping. She drinks a generic Pedialyte product for replenishment. Can you recommend a better product? A friend recommended Scivation Xtenz for her, are you familiar with this product? Thanks for your help!

    • Hi Jerry,

      Was your wife given electrolyte guidelines by the physician? I would request this to understand her requirements which would help me choose the best option for her. I wouldn’t recommend Scivation Xtenz. It also uses sucralose, artificial flavor, acesulfame K and food dyes.

  59. Hi just a small thought that might improve the article, could you put the rrp or £ per serving, per 100g etc for each of the drinks you mentioned (just to compare prices)? I suspect that most people choose gatorade and other sports drinks simply because it is cheaper, more visible and tastes nicer than most alternatives. I personally don’t have a huge amount of money at my disposal so the cheaper the better for me :)

    Also you didn’t mention lucozade which is the one I usually use.

    • Hey Andy,

      Sure, great idea. I actually did an analysis of this before and I believe that the Endure Electrolyte Drops under the PaleoEdge drink is the most economical. You could just add the drops to water or add juice of a lemon wedge to simplify it. You get 48, 32 oz. servings for $13.74 US on Amazon with free shipping. That comes to roughly .28 cents a serving. Depending on our workout and climate, you may only need 16 oz. which would put it down to .14 cents a serving and providing 96 servings.

      I haven’t been able to find a clear label for Lucozade online, and I don’t believe it is available in the US unless you order it from Amazon. If you have a label, I would be happy to take a look at it.

      • Cool thanks Alex :) I bought the Lucozade as a 4 pack and unfortunately the ingredients list must be on the cardboard packaging (which I threw away) since I can’t find a list anywhere on the bottles. I will go out tomorrow and get some more so I can check the cardboard. I will need them anyway until my Endure Electrolyte Drops arrive :) I’ll get back to you as soon as i can. (Also if you know how to upload images to this site then I can take a picture of it)

        By the way I live in England where Lucozade dominates the market place (at least I think it does), Gatorade is much more difficult to come by for some reason.

        Thanks for your help

        • Hi here’s the ingredients list for lucozade; water, glucose syrup, acid (citric acid), acidity regulator (sodium citrate), stabiliser (acacia gum), preservative (pottasium sorbate), anti oxidant (ascorbic acid), sweeteners (aspartame, aseculfame K), flavouring, vitamins (niacin, pantothenic acid, b6, b12), colour (beta-cerotene).
          contains a source of phenylalanine.

          Hope this helps, if you need anything else about lucozade let me know (you have my email from the reply)

          • Hey Andy,

            Thanks for supplying the ingredients. This is one I would definitely avoid, mainly due to aspartame. There are many studies on aspartame, but here is one that I have referenced before. “Despite intense speculations about the carcinogenicity of aspartame, the latest studies show that its metabolite – diketopiperazine – is carcinogenic in the CNS. It contributes to the formation of tumors in the CNS such as gliomas, medulloblastomas and meningiomas. Glial cells are the main source of tumors, which can be caused inter alia by the sweetener in the brain.” You can read more in that study about other issues the metabolites of aspartame cause including excitotoxic effects on the brain. Stick with the Endure!

          • Wow thanks, it staggers belief that something like that is still allowed without a warning of some kind. Looks like it’s just plain water until my drops arrive next week.

            I’m so glad I checked out this article when I joined up with my gym (there was a link on their site) :)

  60. In regards to Heed. Down the road you’re going to find that all this maltodextrin in products is really bad for you. It starts out as a natural product and ends up being a highly processed man made carbohydrate.

    • Hey Gene,

      My concerns are very low for athletes who need an easy to digest, high glycemic fuel source that gets utilized quickly. However I think your point is valid for its use as a ubiquitous additive in processed foods for sedentary individuals due to its high glycemic value or possibly those with digestive disorders.

      There is research comparing maltodextrin, dextrose, sucrose and fructose for athletes. For rigorous exercise and endurance, maltodextrin (glucose polymer) is superior for emptying the stomach faster than simple sugars, sustaining blood sugar without crashes, calorie absorption rate, glycogen absorption rate and the least likely to cause gastric distress.

  61. Hi Alex, not sure if I missed the boat here (I know this article is a little old.) I work with Endurance Products out of Portland, OR, which has a product line called ReplaceSR.

    It’s a 4-6 hour sustained electrolyte tablet that release electrolytes over 4-6 hours. A lot of people using the product are marathon runners, triathletes, etc.

    We would love to send you over a sample if you’re interested in checking it out for yourself, or for your blog. Just check out our website and shoot us an e-mail.

    – Mike

  62. A new hydrating product on the market is called “MotivePure.” I am trying it out, and wonder if you can check it out and report your findings on this one on your blog. I would be interested in your take on this product.

    Also,I supplement with DMG daily. Do I need to also add electrolytes to my water? Another issue is that I add trace minerals to purified water at home for regular water consumption. I never drink tap water, only reverse osmosis purified water out of a 5 gallon jug delivered regularly to my home. With the daily addition of trace minerals to my water, am I already getting sufficient electrolytes?

    • Hi Wally,

      I looked into MotivePure, and it uses potassium benzoate. Like sodium benzoate, potassium benzoate in the presence of ascorbic acid, heat and light creates benzene (carcinogen). While the levels of benzene generated are reported to be low according to the FDA, the total amount consumed may be higher in something like an electrolyte drink. However I didn’t see ascorbic acid added in any of the products, so the risk is most likely low. It is missing chloride, and the amounts of magnesium/calcium are not listed. I also do not know your level of activity, which would determine if that level of sodium is too high for you.

      If you are using reverse osmosis water with added trace minerals (depending on the product) – and you have a good diet – your electrolytes will most likely be well maintained. If you engage in strenuous endurance exercise or you feel fatigue/dehydration, or get muscle cramps or headaches, then you may require more.

  63. Hi Alex,

    I practice sports that are mainly stop and go type (soccer, ball hockey, etc ..) so there in dead time and/or changeup. The time can vary from 1 to 3 hours. I am a heavy sweat and I definitly have difficulty recovering after the activities and I often find myself with a feeling of heavy legs in the end.

    I try to drink as much water as possible and solutions like Gatorade does not work (so I stopped to buy).

    What type of product / solution would be the most helpfull for so-called recreational activities at medium intensity for a high sweat.

    Thank you for your time.


    • Hi Patrick,

      If you are experiencing heavy sweat loss for medium activity sports, you may want to make sure your diet isn’t too high in sodium while being too low in potassium, magnesium and calcium. This is how heavy, salty sweat loss can occur in medium intensity sports unless you are in a hot and humid climate. You also want to make sure you are getting enough quality protein and carbohydrates post-workout (think whey protein and banana), which can affect recovery. A carbohydrate energy source is important for sports, so Heed would be my first choice to test out.

  64. I am budding triathlete and ran across this article while researching recovery supplements. Just when I thought I was starting to understand some requirements needed for recovery I started reading the questions and answers section and now I’m seriously confused. I guess for starters I’m having a hard time understanding the difference between what the body needs for recovery versus what what it needs for fueling during training or a race and the supplements for each I’m in need of both but I’m assuming the requirements are different and the supplement products used are different. It seems the more I think I learn the more questions I have.
    I’m 6’0″, about 230 lbs, and very heavy sweater. In the few months I’ve been training the fat has melted away and I’ve already lost about 20 lbs. Up to this point I’ve been using water, the protein on your worst protein list, an electrolyte drink on the worst electrolyte drink list, and just plain hardheadedness to get though my workouts. HELP!

    • Hey Trey,

      I appreciate your honesty! Great job on the current weight loss so far. It is easy to get confused on recovery and fueling. I’ll give you a quick guide for clarification.

      Depending on your goals and training, this will determine your protein/fat/carb ratios. Too many carbs can put on excess weight and make you feel lethargic, and not enough can affect endurance. It is better when the carbs come from nutrient dense foods like sweet potatoes and watery fruit like oranges and watermelon, but rice and rice pasta may be required depending on the training and recovery. If you find yourself dragging during workouts, do an inventory of protein/fat/carbs/electrolytes/hydration/sleep. For light training days, I would use the Endure Electrolyte Drops in water. For heavy training days over the 1.5 hour mark where you will need a fuel source and are sweating a ton, I would use Heed and Saltstick (as needed).

      For optimal recovery, your body needs 8 hours of sleep, high quality protein (whey is an easy one post-workout), anti-inflammatory compounds found in fish or fish oil, vitamin C, electrolytes with a higher emphasis on magnesium, and zinc.

      That should give you a solid foundation. Let me know if you have any more questions, happy to help.

      • Alex,

        Thanks so much for the great info. It definitely gives me a good start. One more question, though. How do I determine what the appropriate ratios of protein/carbs/fat/etc. are? As I’ve gotten older and my middle has gotten wider and with all the misinformation out there I’ve become fat/carbs averse. But with my workouts getting longer and longer I know I need crank those up. I just don’t know to how high.

        Thanks again,


        • Hi Trey,

          There is a lot of debate out there about low-carb training vs. high carb training for endurance athletes. The truth is, you can do both and be successful. This comes back to your goals and individual needs, and if you want to go the low-carb route for weight loss you have to put a larger emphasis on protein and fat intake (don’t be afraid of fat). I would recommend sticking with starchy and regular vegetables, fruit and Heed for your carbs, with very little grain.

          Protein: For protein in grams, the formula is 0.8 to 1.0 per pound of lean body mass (calculation subtracting body fat percentage in pounds). Excess protein is converted to glucose, adding more stored glycogen.

          Carbohydrates: The simple formula I use is with grams instead of set percentages. If your goal is weight loss while training, the base aim for carbohydrates on resting days will be around 100 grams, and around 150 grams on training days based on your performance. Scale up slowly if you need more.

          Fat: The easier way to think about fat is to include it with every meal and snack (avocado, nuts, seeds, coconut oil, olive oil, butter, full-fat yogurt, eggs, cuts of meat with the fat). You need it to absorb the cardiovascular fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K) and the antioxidant carotenoid family. And unlike carbs and sugar, your brain has an off switch for protein and fat intake.

  65. I don’t do sports, but I have chronic diarrhea and have trouble staying hydrated. I’m sensitive to soy, dairy/whey, and some fruits and vegetables. What would you recommend as a drink to carry around with me?

    Btw, I do see drs., but across the board they recommend Gatorade, which I have always refused to consider. I take Ca and Mg 2x/day, and use salt. I worry about driving and whatnot (seldom do tunnels and bridges) because I sometimes feel like I’m going to black out (and have blacked out, but usually within minutes of stopping exercise).

    When I go out I carry bananas, salty crackers and water, but if I feel really bad they take a while to kick in. It can be awkward to be stuck waiting, with a fuzzy brain, trying to figure out how to get home!

    The WHO has a recipe on their website for a rehydration drink, but it’s really just sugar, salt and water. With all your options, what do you think is best for a non-athlete prone to electrolyte loss?

    • Hi Suki,

      Is it strictly electrolyte related, or is there a blood sugar component as well? What does the electrolyte range look like on your blood work? Knowing these two things will help me figure out the best option.

  66. I checked, and recent fasting glucose and random glucose results are fine, if that’s what you mean. Ca, Mg, K, and Na from last January are also ok, but wouldn’t they vary?

    My blood pressure sometimes goes down (used to check it at the grocery store after running)and I can see the veins in my hands shrink and disappear. I believe it’s just dehydration. However, I’m thin, so extra sugar or calories wouldn’t hurt. My dr. stresses that rehydration
    requires more than just water, and then recommends Gatorade (which I told him is awful – but he’s a busy guy, doesn’t have time for details)!

    Also, orange juice energizes me and candy bars don’t, so I don’t think it’s just about sugar. Unfortunately, I’ve had reflux for a year and can’t have acidic drinks anymore because they burn my esophagus.

    My drs. are conscientious enough, but getting by on a daily basis is left up to me.

    • Hi Suki,

      Yes, I wanted to make sure that hypoglycemia wasn’t also occurring. The electrolytes do vary on blood work. Since your situation is actually similar to an athlete losing a lot electrolytes, you can approach it in a similar way. I would recommend using the SaltStick tablets as needed and drink coconut water throughout the day (choose one from the list above). You will need to have your doctor dose the Saltstick capsules for you and review this program first. Coconut water is an excellent source of potassium, bringing up the levels you may need in combination with the Saltstick. It tends to cause cramping for endurance sports, but for your situation it would be the perfect source of energy and electrolytes. Test this out and if it is not working for you, let me know and I’ll come up with a second solution.

  67. Thanks so much for this post! I’ve been reading through all the comments to see if my questions have been answered and have found some with similar situations, but wanted to ask specifically. First, do you have experience with Pure Sport? We were considering trying it. My son, 18, is 6 ft. tall, weighs approx 165-170, and is a competitive shooter. He is often out in the heat and humidity at matches all day, sometimes running stages, and often for 8-10 hours or more. He also has hyperhydrosis, so he sweats profusely; and he has dysautonomia. His doctors have told him to take salt tabs and to drink electrolyte drinks. He also works outside, so just on a daily basis he has trouble staying hydrated, but when he shoots in a match, it is especially difficult – and most of the matches take place along the US Gulf Coast, so it is very hot and humid. Do you have a regimen that would help him, pre and post; and which elec replacement do you think would be best for his extreme sweating? Thanks so much for all the help!

    • Hi Cate,

      Yes, I am familiar with Pure Sport. Michael Phelps has been a part of endorsing it, however I wish he did some research on it first. It contains sucralose (which I have written in depth about here) and FD&C (artificial colors without stating the numbers). Whey protein is excellent post-workout, however when used during exercise it can produce too much ammonia, leading to muscle fatigue.

      I would agree with your doctors that an electrolyte drink and salt tabs are the best approach, however you want the salt tabs to contain more than just salt. I have found Heed and Saltstick (contains more electrolytes) to work very well together. Keep oranges and watermelon on hand during breaks along with his other nutrition regiment. Use whey protein post-competition for recovery. Run these suggestions by your doctor to make sure they are in agreement for his current conditions.

        • That will take some experimentation to dial in, but as a pre-match proportion I would try doing 1 capsule with a meal, then 6-8 ounces of Heed 30 minutes before a match.

  68. For migraines my doctor prescribes 800 mg of IBProfin followed by a 32 ounce sports drink of any type. I am looking for an option without the sugars and artificial ingredients while trying to keep costs down. Do you have a recommendation what to try ?

    • Hi Laurie,

      In your case, you will actually want something weighted more towards calcium and magnesium. The best one is called Gerolsteiner, a sparkling mineral water that has the full electrolyte profile including bicarbonate which is lacking is most electrolyte drinks and has some impressive qualities. After doing some traveling and testing out different mineral waters in each area, this one had the most impressive profile and taste. I have been using it successfully with clients that have issues with headaches, nausea, digestive issues and dehydration. Usually you can find the glass liter bottles in Trader Joes or Whole Foods, if not the smaller versions online are the way to go.

      • My 11 year old son has migraines and is supposed to drink 32oz of water and 32 oz of Gatorade for electrolytes daily. Obviously I am looking for something healthier to replace the Gatorade. The Sparkling water you mentioned is quite pricey. Do you know of anything else affordable that a child would be willing to drink?
        Thank you

  69. Hi, this is a nice review and I agree with your 1 and 2 places but I am really confused about Ultima.
    I researched it because its served at the Portland Marathon but if one looks on their homepage it states to contain 5mg Sodium per serving. I dont understand what volume one serving is but if one assumes a glass of water then the amount of sodium is really low. I understand that its different for people drinking it all day but for an athlete a 5mg serving is laughably low and it would even be dangerous to drink it and think your replacing lost sodium.
    Whats up with that? Did I misunderstand something?

    • Hi Urtmurt,

      Ultima is really designed best for people looking for a low sugar/carbohydate and sodium electrolyte drink. These are typically those who are lightly active but struggle with hydration, and want something sweet but need to be careful with sugar and salt intake. I would agree with you that it isn’t designed for marathon runners, and I think they are targeting the wrong demographic. So no you didn’t misunderstand anything! There are companies that believe that people have too much sodium in their diet, and therefore design their products to try and offset that intake. The problem is that you need to have a lower sodium intake to begin with to make a lower sodium drink work because you will lose less in sweat. For many people and hot conditions, a drink this low in sodium will come up short. If you are doing endurance events and sweating heavily, I would agree that this isn’t the best fit.

      • Thanks for the answer! Sounds reasonable and I can imagine its a good drink for what you outlined.
        Still makes me annoyed at the Marathon organizers and somewhat at their marketing…

        • Thanks for your comments, which motivated me to send an e-mail to the Portland Marathon asking if they’ll be serving any other drinks. Of course they won’t, but maybe you should send an e-mail as well just so they know that their clientele are raising important concerns they could address in the future. Sometimes race organizers are not current or former athletes and don’t “get it.”

          Just for fun, I did some quick calculations for myself regarding how much sodium I might be in deficit for. Assuming I consume all ~2000 mg of the RDV of sodium the night before/morning of the Portland Marathon, and I lose ~920 mg of salt by sweating per hour (see:, for my roughly 2.5-hour marathon I would be in a sodium deficit of about 300 mg after the race. Not too horrible (I think), but this assumes I didn’t pee out a bunch of the sodium. Starting with 1000 mg sodium, I reach a deficit of 1300 mg! Way too low.

          Standard Snyder mini pretzels (probably similar to what they’ll serve at Portland) have 12.5 mg sodium per pretzel, so a 300-mg deficit amounts to 24 mini pretzels, about one packet. Not too bad. 1300 mg deficit corresponds to 104 pretzels! No thanks. To be safe, I’m going to find a salt supplement.

          I think I might

          • Hi Doug,

            I would be happy to send an email to the race organizers of the Portland Marathon. Consider it done.

  70. Hi and thanks for a great resource-
    Will you please look at “osmo” and “cerasport”? These are the 2 that I feel you should include here. Additionally, I’m writing an article on hydration and I’d like you to look at it and give me some feedback. I am a Bikram yoga teacher and bicycle racer since 94. I have also done a marathon and several half marathons. I want to write something for the students to read and help them more effectively rehydrate.
    Thank you

    • Hi Jason,

      I have looked at Osmo before, and the only reason I didn’t include it was because of the addition of folic acid (synthetic form of folate that has been found in studies to block folate receptors and is potentially problematic with cancer and MTHFR gene mutations). Granted it is a small amount, but there is a cumulative count occurring due to fortified foods. Everything else looks great including using the citrate forms of minerals. So it is in a grey area close to being in the “Best” if they remove the folic acid.

      Cerasport only contains sodium, potassium and rice syrup. Brown rice syrup is where higher levels of arsenic have been found, and it is missing other key electrolytes. So I would pass on this one.

  71. My son will be turning 14 this November. He is playing competitive golf for many years now playing in the low 70s. He has been using powerade which I split 50/50 with water. I found that a lot of PGA players use nuun active which is rich in electrolytes. What do you think on nuun, if not what do you suggest? In addition, to add to it, he just completed a physical which indicated he is insuline resistant

    • Hi Phanos,

      I updated the article last week and just noticed that half the “Worst” section got deleted. So I apologize about that because NUUN is on there. I don’t recommend NUUN due to its use of acesulfame K, and sodium benzoate and vitamin C together. You can read under #9 now why.

      I’m sorry to hear that your son is insulin resistant, but there are many dietary changes you can make that will help. I would recommend using either the Hammer Endurolytes Fizz, Endure or Lyteshow.

  72. Thanks Alex. I do appreciate it. One quick question; how do you use the lemon, orange and cucumber to prepare the homemade electrolyte recipe you have under Endure/Lyteshow?

    • There are a couple ways that I do it. An easy one for flavor is to just add the juice of one lemon along with the Endure or Lyteshow to 32 oz. of water. For the recipe I have listed, you slice each one with the peel and add it to 32 oz. of water. It tastes best cold, so adding ice is a good idea.

  73. Thank you for the excellent information and communications. I’ve never used any of these kinds of products but received info about something of interest in the mail called HydraBurst (800-972-1440). Looks good to me but is a bit pricey and am wondering your take on it, and if there may be other options. I would appreciate your recommendations on the matter. I am 71, in moderate condition. Have been a runner for 46 years, now run about 45 min 3-5 times /week and am an active gardener. I think dehydration is as issue (live in AZ) (also problems with nutrient absorption) and tend to get calf cramps in the AM. I’m already taking Magnesium Glycinate Chelate 800mg and Cal-Mag Butyrate 400mg and Ultimate Minerals (Green Smoothie Girl) on my doc’s recommendation.
    Thanks so much for your consideration and response.

    • Hi Gwyn,

      HydraBurst is a zero sodium product. Since you are a runner living in Arizona, I wouldn’t recommend a product that doesn’t have sodium to replenish your loss when you sweat. I would consider Endure or Lyteshow. Both are much more affordable and will provide you with a balanced mineral profile added to your water.

  74. Great article .. wonder if you have had any news or experience with 1000 mg packets of Emergen-C which say has antioxidants and electrolytes and other good things..

    I work in the sun in Arizona alot and go through alot of bottled water and started using this..

    any recommendation on this product?


    • Hi Mark,

      The Emergen-C electrolyte mix isn’t bad, however it is a zero sodium product and if you are sweating a lot you will want something that contains sodium.

  75. Hi Alex,
    What do you know about Electrolyte Fizz from Bodytech? After reading your research and responses I’m worried that I may be taking an unsafe product.

    • Hi Shannon,

      Yes I am aware of Electrolyte Fizz from Bodytech. I wouldn’t categorize it as an unsafe product, but I don’t agree with the use of isolated fructose, cyanocobalamin or folic acid. They blend it with Trace Minerals Concentrace, which can easily be used on its own or as Endure. If you want a fizzy drink, I would use the Hammer Endurolytes Fizz over this product.

  76. Good read. Ever hear of EFS drink mix? Be interested to hear your thoughts on this. Also Cher-amino by twin labs. I’m on a new vitamin amino protein regimen, any thoughts, recommendation? I’m 35 male. Trying to burn fat and build musle. Currently taking the collagen twice a day and then a whey Isolate with milk in the middle of the night with the amino and supplements both morning and night depending on what.

    • Hi Shaun,

      I have heard of the EFS drink mix, and if your goal is to burn fat and build muscle, it is too high in sugar for your goals. This is especially true if you are using it for general workouts and not endurance training. I don’t recommend Cher-Amino by Twin Labs because it contains crystalline fructose as the first ingredient, artificial flavor, phosphoric acid (binds to calcium/magnesium), sodium benzoate and methylparaben and propylparaben. Parabens have been found to be mostly safe in studies from a carcinogenic standpoint, however a recent study hypothesized its link to the obesity.

      I would recommend reading the testosterone article for recommendations. Optimizing your testosterone with the right diet, supplementation and exercise will yield the best results.

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The entire contents of this website are based upon the opinions of Alex Swanson M.S., unless otherwise noted. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. Any recommendations made on this website should be first reviewed by your doctor.